Management overrides of internal controls can make your company more vulnerable to fraud. This is true even when managers have innocent intentions — for example, they don’t feel they have time to follow proper accounts payable procedures because a vendor is requesting immediate payment. Your company is at even higher risk of fraud losses if a senior manager intentionally ignores the rules to manipulate financial statements.

Warning signs

Management overrides of financial controls can be difficult to detect. However, there are several warning signs that a manager isn’t fully adhering to the policies and procedures your organization has adopted. For instance, a manager may fail to call attention to business risks or dispute an auditor’s findings regarding his or her department. A senior manager may be unwilling to discuss issues that could require financial adjustments or insist on releasing overly optimistic reports on current or future performance.

Such behavior doesn’t prove that fraud is occurring. However, it suggests that you need to improve or open new paths of communication and consider retraining managers on the importance of internal controls. If you do suspect fraud, you must be willing to investigate — regardless of whom it might implicate.

Encouraging honesty

To prevent management overrides, build a culture that encourages honesty and supports employees who speak up when they suspect something’s wrong. Think about whether your managers experience pressure that unwittingly encourages fraud. For example, if your industry has seen increased business failures, some employees may think they need to keep profits at specified levels. They might also feel stressed if their compensation depends on achieving stretch goals for cash flow or operating results.

Employees a level or two below senior managers are most likely to observe management overrides. Give them access to a confidential hotline and they’re more likely to report fraud before it seriously harms your business. And if you extend your hotline to vendors and customers, you’ll increase your chances for learning of improprieties early.

A difficult year

This year has been challenging for businesses of every size and in every sector. With many employees working from home and some companies downsizing, managers may be tempted to take short cuts they wouldn’t under ordinary circumstances. Or worse, managers with access to financial statements may feel pressure to fudge numbers to improve your company’s public profile or boost their own compensation. We can help identify flaws in your fraud-prevention program and design policies that even those bent on fraud will have trouble overriding.

© 2020 Covenant CPA

Many business owners reach a point where managing the financial side of the enterprise becomes overwhelming. Usually, this is a good thing — the company has grown to a point where simple bookkeeping and basic financial reporting just don’t cut it anymore.

If you can relate to the feeling, it may be time to add a CFO or controller. But you’ve got to first consider whether your payroll can take on this generally high-paying position and exactly what you’d get in return.

The broad role

A CFO or controller looks beyond day-to-day financial management to do more holistic, big-picture planning of financial and operational goals. He or she will take a seat at the executive table and serve as your go-to person for all matters related to your company’s finances and operations.

A CFO or controller goes far beyond merely compiling financial data. He or she provides an interpretation of the data to explain how financial decisions will impact all areas of your business. And this individual can plan capital acquisition strategies, so your company has access to financing, as needed, to meet working capital and operating expenses.

In addition, a CFO or controller will serve as the primary liaison between your company and its bank to ensure your financial statements meet requirements to help negotiate any loans. Analyzing possible merger, acquisition and other expansion opportunities also falls within a CFO’s or controller’s purview.

Specific responsibilities

A CFO or controller typically has a set of core responsibilities that link to the financial oversight of your operation. This includes making sure there are adequate internal controls to help safeguard the business from internal fraud and embezzlement.

The hire also should be able to implement improved cash management practices that will boost your cash flow and improve budgeting and cash forecasting. He or she should be able to perform ratio analysis and compare the financial performance of your business to benchmarks established by similar-size companies in the same geographic area. And a controller or CFO should analyze the tax and cash flow implications of different capital acquisition strategies — for example, leasing vs. buying equipment and real estate.

Major commitment

Make no mistake, hiring a full-time CFO or controller represents a major commitment in both time to the hiring process and dollars to your payroll. These financial executives typically command substantial high salaries and attractive benefits packages.

So, first make sure you have the financial resources to commit to this level of compensation. You may want to outsource the position. No matter which route you choose, our firm can help you assess the financial impact of the idea.

© 2019 Covenant CPA

As the old saying goes, “Knowledge is power.” This certainly rings true in business, as those who best understand their industries and markets tend to have a knack for staying on top. If that person is a company’s owner, however, great knowledge can turn into a vulnerability when he or she decides to retire or otherwise leave the business.

As you develop your succession plan, consider how to mitigate the loss of pure know-how that will occur when you step down. One way to tackle this risk is to implement a knowledge management strategy.

Two types of knowledge

Knowledge management is a formal process of recognizing and treating knowledge as an asset that your company can identify, maintain and share. Generally, a business can subdivide knowledge into two types:

1. Explicit knowledge. This exists in the tangible world and typically includes company reports, financial statements and databases. These items are usually easy to access, extrapolate from and append. For your succession plan, however, you may need to dig deeper into your own confidential files, memos or emails.

2. Tacit knowledge. This is information that resides solely between the ears of a business’s leadership, employees and perhaps even service providers. As such, it’s not easily retrievable. In terms of succession planning, this may be the stuff that you haven’t written down or even talked about much.

Typical categories

Typical knowledge management categories include:

  • Taxes and accounting,
  • Financial management,
  • Strategic planning,
  • HR, payroll and employment practices,
  • Sales and marketing,
  • Customers,
  • Production, and
  • Technology.

In addition, knowledge management should account for your company’s intellectual property — trade secrets, for example. Many business owners keep such details close to their vests and even managers may not know the full value of the company’s intellectual property. This could put your business at risk following your departure.

A comprehensive knowledge management effort related to your succession plan will call on you to undertake a full inventory of every category listed above and perhaps others. Gathering your explicit knowledge may entail compiling years’, even decades’, worth of documents, files and writings. This may not be an easy task, but it’s still a matter of straight research.

You’ll likely find capturing your tacit knowledge somewhat more challenging. One idea is to ask a suitable employee or engage an outside consultant to interview you regarding all the pertinent categories. Many business owners find these conversations arduous at first but eventually enlightening and enjoyable.

A legacy preserved

A solid succession plan is imperative to maintaining the future stability and success of your company. Knowledge management can strengthen that plan and help preserve the legacy you’ve worked so hard to build. Contact us for further information and for help identifying knowledge related to your tax filings, accounting methods and other financial matters. 205-345-9898 or info@covenantcpa.com.

© 2019 CovenantCPA

It’s common for hotel owners to outsource the management of their properties. Unfortunately, hotel management companies sometimes fraudulently profit at the owners’ expense.

Case studies

Fraudulent mismanagement can take several forms. In one instance, a real estate property developer hired an international hotel management company to run his new hotel in Miami. The developer installed his own executive to oversee operations. But when the executive questioned a management company invoice to the hotel for $8,000 in unspecified sales and marketing services, the company couldn’t provide an adequate explanation. The hotel’s developer sued, accusing the management company of fraud, accounting irregularities and mismanagement.

In another case, fraud experts discovered that vendor contracts were supplying a hotel management company with millions of dollars in undisclosed rebates. Yet the management contract restricted compensation to basic fees and incentives. By failing to disclose the rebates it received from vendors, the company could be accused of accepting bribes. The forensic investigation also uncovered hidden management company ownership interests in several vendors.

Contract violations

When hotel owners suspect their management agents of fraud and self-dealing, forensic accounting experts are available to help sort out the facts. An operational audit can determine if the management company is complying with the management contract. Legal action may be appropriate if fraudulent activity is found.

Most lawsuits against hotel management companies target purchasing practices. In addition to hiding rebates, self-dealing operators may levy extra fees and conceal documents from owners. If the management contract specifies that the management company may receive only purchasing fees for their purchasing services, then rebates and extra payments represent profits unlawfully withheld from hotel owners.

With the help of fraud experts, owners may be able to recover all or a substantial part of vendor discounts and rebates. Experts can also uncover excessive fees that end up doubling or even tripling charges specified in the management contract. A thorough forensic investigation may help owners negotiate new purchasing agreements that will provide them with substantial proceeds from rebates or discounts.

True cost

To ensure a decent rate of return on your hotel investment, it’s essential that you evaluate the true cost of hiring a management company. If fraud is involved, the cost is probably too high. We can help you and your attorney make an informed decision. Call us today at 205-345-9898.

© 2018 Covenant CPA

If you’ve worked a lifetime to build a large estate, you undoubtedly would like to leave a lasting legacy to your children and future generations. Educating your children about saving, investing and other money management skills can help keep your legacy alive.

Teaching techniques

There’s no one right way to teach your children about money. The best way depends on your circumstances, their personalities and your comfort level.

If your kids are old enough, consider sending them to a money management class. For younger children, you might start by simply giving them an allowance in exchange for doing household chores. This helps teach them the value of work. Opening a savings account or a CD, or buying bonds, can help teach kids about investing and the power of compounding.

For families that are charitably inclined, a private foundation may be a great vehicle for teaching children about the joys of giving and the impact that wealth can make beyond one’s family. For this strategy to be effective, older children should have some input into the foundation’s activities. When the time comes, this can also be a great way to get your grandchildren involved at a young age.

Timing and amount of distributions

Many parents take an all-or-nothing approach when it comes to the timing and amounts of distributions to their children — either transferring substantial amounts of wealth all at once or making gifts that are too small to provide meaningful lessons.

Consider making distributions large enough so that your kids have something significant to lose, but not so large that their entire inheritance is at risk.

Introduce incentives, but remain flexible

An incentive trust is a trust that rewards children for doing things that they might not otherwise do. Such a trust can be an effective estate planning tool, but there’s a fine line between encouraging positive behavior and controlling your children’s life choices. A trust that’s too restrictive may incite rebellion or invite lawsuits.

Incentives can be valuable, however, if the trust is flexible enough to allow a child to chart his or her own course. A so-called “principle trust,” for example, gives the trustee discretion to make distributions based on certain guiding principles or values without limiting beneficiaries to narrowly defined goals. But no matter how carefully designed, an incentive trust won’t teach your children critical money skills.

Communication is key

To maintain family harmony when leaving a large portion of your estate to your children, clearly communicate the reason for your decisions. Contact us for more information at 205-345-9898.

© 2018 Covenant CPA